We developed a general framework for low-latency simulation of large linear elastostatic deformable models, suitable for real time animation and haptic interaction in virtual environments. The deformation is described using precomputed Green’s functions, and runtime boundary value problems are solved using Capacitance Matrix Algorithms.
We introduced boundary element (BEM) techniques for precomputing Green’s functions, and multiresolution techniques using second-generation wavelets on surfaces. We thus demonstrated that it was practical, even on ordinary desktop computers available ca. 1999, to simulate and interact with large deformable models with visual and haptic feedback.
- D. James and D. K. Pai, “Multiresolution Green’s Function Methods for Interactive Simulation of Large-scale Elastostatic Objects.” in ACM Transactions on Graphics, 22:1, January 2003. pp. 47-82. [DOI]
- D. James and D. K. Pai, “A Unified Treatment of Elastostatic and Rigid Contact Simulation for Real Time Haptics,” Haptics-e, the Electronic Journal of Haptics Research, Vol.2, No. 1, September 2001. http://www.haptics-e.org [pdf]
- D. James and D. K. Pai, “ArtDefo, Accurate Real Time Deformable Objects,” in Computer Graphics (ACM SIGGRAPH 99 Conference Proceedings), pp. 65–72, August 1999. [pdf]